The periodontium is the supporting tissue structure of a tooth. It includes the bone, ligaments and the gingiva (gums). Periodontal disease is a bacterial inflammation of the bone supporting one or more teeth. Today, it is considered to be among the principal causes of tooth loss. The stages of periodontal disease are divided into two main conditions: gingivitis and periodontitis.
Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes redness, bleeding and gum swelling. At this phase of the disease, subjective disturbances may or may not be present. Gingivitis is commonly caused by inadequate oral hygiene. It can be treated by regular professional calculus removal and tooth polishing, conducted by a doctor of dental medicine. Changing the patient’s oral health habits is crucial for successful treatment.
Periodontitis is a common consequence of untreated gingivitis, which causes the bacteria to reach deeper layers of the supporting structure of a tooth, destroying bone tissue and forming periodontal pockets. There are three main types of periodontitis: aggressive, chronic and necrotizing periodontitis. Some of its forms develop virtually undetected, whereas others are accompanied by pain, bleeding, gum swelling, bad breath and loose or migrating teeth.
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The diagnosis is established by conducting a clinical examination, probing, tracking periodontal indexes and X-ray scanning.
The key factor for developing gum disease is dental plaque and the remaining factors include age, genetics, smoking, stress, orthodontic anomalies, dental trauma, malnutrition, etc.
The treatment of periodontitis presupposes the removal of supragingival (professional calculus removal and tooth polishing) and subgingival buildups, that is, scaling and root planing (gingival curettage). These procedures are used to remove bacterial buildups from within the gums (periodontal pockets). Along with the professional cleaning, the doctor sandblasts the surface of the teeth and disinfects them using a diode laser. Such treatment has excellent results.